Published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, by Kenneth E. Powell, Alice M. Roberts, and James G. Ross of ICF Macro; Mary Ann C. Phillips; Dawud A. Ujamaa; and Mei Zhou. The obesity epidemic has captured the attention of public and private stakeholders at both the national and state level. Driven by rising adolescent obesity levels in their state, the Philanthropic Collaborative for a Healthy Georgia funded the Georgia Youth Fitness Assessment, the first state-wide probability study to measure physical activity and physical fitness in 5th and 7th grade students. This article discusses the methodology and findings of the Georgia Youth Fitness Study, which has since prompted the state legislature to take strides toward improving fitness levels among its school-aged population. Findings from this study will serve as a baseline against which future progress can be made.