In 2006, the Office of the Assistance Secretary for Planning and Evaluation within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)—with significant involvement from the Office of Refugee Resettlement—funded an exploratory study examining how HHS programs were addressing the needs of victims of human trafficking. The study consisted of an extensive review of relevant literature, identifying barriers and promising practices for addressing the needs of victims of human trafficking, with a goal of informing current and future program design and improving services to this vulnerable population. The results of the study are presented in a series of five issue briefs and a final report. As a next step to understanding the needs of trafficking victims and the services available to meet those needs, HHS is sponsoring a national symposium focused on the health needs of human trafficking victims. The purpose of this symposium is to discuss trafficking victims’ health needs, how to better identify trafficking victims within health care settings, how well current systems are meeting those needs, and what more can be done for this population. The symposium will also explore promising practices and strategies for identifying and providing needed health care to human trafficking victims. This background document has been designed to set the stage for the discussions that will take place at the symposium as well as provide participants with a common foundation from which to start the discussions at the symposium.