This white paper was prepared by the Applied Organizational Research group of ICF International in August 2008. It details the state of competency modeling and job analysis in the academic literature. The report opens with definitions of competencies, competency modeling, and job analysis. Next, a series of trends in the academic literature are highlighted, including the increased focus on integrating technology in competency modeling and job analysis efforts. Then a series of debates are framed as questions, and each side of the debate is addressed with citations from the academic literature. Finally, the paper wraps up with a proposed model of how to apply the different approaches of competency modeling to different human resources functions (such as leadership training for succession planning). The report includes full references to all studies cited within.